Ayele Addis Ambelu (Ed, 2021) Ayeleradio@gmail.com
The ups and downs of female journalists and writers Women and the media are all involved in television, newspapers, magazines, books, cartoons, public relations, and advertising. For example, how many women are in The Reporter’s (Amharic and English) editorial department? More than 50 percent of them are women. Therefore, we find that this section of the newspaper is much larger than other newspapers and magazines.
Next, we will see more and more journalists and women associated with journalism in a new and new era. However, in the New Age, editors, reporters, and other professional journalists are known to have many female journalists, designers, photographers, and professors in the press, not in accordance with the rules of the press. She is also the editor-in-chief of Zemen Magazine and may be the first female editor-in-chief. The manager of Addis Admas newspaper is a woman, and the owner of Queen’s Magazine is a woman. In addition to the newspapers and magazines mentioned, they are still on the market today, but men like Menelik, Salem, Relief, Tobias, Mizan, the Horn of Africa, Muday, Mind, regularly employed women in journalism and journalism. Their involvement in the electronics industry, especially in radio and television, over the past 50 years has not been easy.
The main purpose of this article is to look at women’s media in a variety of ways, first and foremost, what the media is, women’s participation in various parts of our purpose, the level of women’s participation in our country, and the magnitude of our problems. The author of this article would like to point out that the foreign experience added here is intended to show where our women’s participation should begin. International Women’s Participation in the Media When we say women and the media, we mean women’s participation in books, newspapers, magazines, cartoons, television, radio, public relations, advertising, and we start with the book, magazine and newspaper. Numerous books on female authors tell us that women have been involved in the writing of books, poems, short stories, and long novels for over two thousand years. In fact, Lisa Tutl writes in her encyclopedia of feminism (1986) that her involvement in poetry, which is one of the areas of essay, dates back to the beginning of her own poetry. The author of this 400-page workshop said, “Before the struggle for women’s equality is as widespread and profound as it is today, when women’s interests, attitudes, opinions, attitudes and desires are distorted or misinterpreted. It was a time when they showed that they were not inferior to them before they were created with a narrow throat to control what they should and should not say, ”he said, specifically in the section on poetry and poetry. Bloomsbury published a book entitled “Women’s Literature”. In his 1172-page book, published in 1992, we learn that in ancient Greece, Rome, Britain from 15th to 20th century, many European, African, Australian, Asian, and North and South American writers participated in various literary works.
According to the book, until the fifth century BCE, only men wrote. Since the fifth century, however, women have been known to excel, especially in songwriting. During the fifth to fourth centuries, women were given the opportunity to read literature while studying in the home administration. This increased their chances of participating in this field. From the fourth century to the second century BCE, love poetry became a major source of inspiration for women. Its influence spread not only to Greece but also to ancient Rome. From the first century to the fifth century BCE, Roman scribes were also widely known. Among the early Roman women writers were the first and second Sulpicia. Sulphia I was from the first century BC to the first century AD, and she wrote poems on various topics. Like Sulphisia, there were female writers such as Hor Tessia, Sicia, and Cornelius, and by the end of the fifth century BCE, their political and economic influence had increased. Just as women were involved in literacy in Europe before Christ, so they did in Asia, especially in Israel, India, Southeast Asia, Japan, and China. Although European and Asian women writers are said to have played a significant role in the field of literature since ancient times, European scholars say that Africans and literature became acquainted with colonialism. But we know that in Ethiopia and the rest of Africa, our mothers compose poems for weddings, mourning, war and other social issues. It is important to remember that the history of women’s participation in literature has been growing since the invention of the printing press. But why are there so few women writers in the world? In her 1928 article, Erum of One Ow, Virginia Wolff emphasized that women should have their own income and their own home in order to write on an equal footing with men. Virginia has also been affected by the portrayal of female characters as weak, impotent, in need of entertainment and care, and sexually active. It is important to remember that in the pre-Virginia era, there was a strong movement in the United Kingdom to eradicate the stigma attached to women and to protect women’s right to vote and stand for election. Prominent leaders include Professor Pankhurst’s great-grandfather Emlyn Pankhurst (1858-1928) and his mother, Sylvia Pankhurst (1882-1960), Emily Davis (1830-1921), Elizabeth Garret Anderson (1836-1917), Lydia Harvest (1827-90), and Recession. ፡ Searching It should be noted that in the 18th and 19th centuries, some women writers wrote in the name of men.
Helley Blaise, better known as Margaret Fuller (1810-1850), was published by Dr. Fox Macha for the sixth time in 1965 in a book entitled “The New Survey to Journalism” for teaching at the college level. (1867-1922) mentioned that he was a leading journalist. These have paved the way for the emergence of veteran journalists such as Dr. Thompson, Ishbel Rose, and Anhar McCormick. It is well-known that these leading journalists were ridiculed for their masculinity, witchcraft, and persistent prayers. Instead, women in their day were encouraged to learn the art of saving, even though it was a widow or an artist. Because it was not fun, men took the lead in doing the hard work, such as advertising. It is also important to note that the demand for men was secondary. Fortunately, advertising led to a step-by-step approach to writing, which enabled them to produce commercial newspapers and magazines. Later, most daily newspapers (large and small) began to cover clothing, medicine, prescription drugs, teens, adolescents, family and community, home decoration, gardening, and so on. In his 1951 book, Journalism and Student Journalism, Frederick W. Maguer, an associate professor of journalism at Ohio University from 1943-44, states that the establishment of a student newspaper will serve as a cornerstone for those on this path in life. . Not to mention the increased participation of women in newspapers and magazines, emphasizing the importance of training young people in this profession to discriminate and respond to public demand, not to mention the increase in the popularity and popularity of newspapers and magazines. Its desirability and readability put them in a position of ordinary participation and high responsibility. Dr. Foxxmot’s college textbook confirms that out of the 131 daily newspapers published in the United States, 121 publishers, presidents, general managers, or editors were women. It is hard to imagine a newspaper in the United States, Europe, Asia, or Africa today. Although women have been excluded from the media for many years, it is now widely accepted that the purpose of newspapers and magazines cannot be achieved without women’s participation. Before we move on to electronic media, Ray Eldon Hebert’s book, Mass Media, states: “The Women’s Equality Movement Owned Press Media More Than Electronic Media. It is important to note that it has been used more, that print media is less expensive than electronic media, and that they are more trained in print journalism than radio and television journalism. ” When we look at the participation of women in electronic media, especially radio, since its inception in the 1920s, we see the participation of newspapers and magazines. With the experience of women expressing their opinions in newspapers and magazines, radio programs expanded during World War II, and they became involved in advertising and drama, then on housewives, programs, and so on. In addition, I would like to point out that women’s participation in radio has grown significantly since the 1930s, when individuals began establishing several radio stations. Radio programming reached its peak in the 1940’s, and television was booming. Women’s participation in the media was not exaggerated. After 1948, however, a number of television stations were able to take part, and a number of television journalists took part.
According to Professor Ray Eldon Hibbert in his book Mass Media, human rights were not really what it used to be. But since the 1960’s, especially with the advent of radio and television, they have been working not only as editors but also as responsible. When it comes to radio and television, we should also talk about filmmaking and women’s participation. I don’t think it’s important to focus on the radio and the television. Not to mention the media and many women involved in this field. Women’s participation in the media When did we start talking about Ethiopian women and the media? When did women start participating? What media have we used since? Should be answered. Dr. Amsalu Aklilu, who teaches Ethiopian literature on the history of Addis Ababa University. Their work is about male writers, not about women. In the world of writing, if there is a woman who wrote a poem, why did the writings of an Ethiopian woman disappear from the Ethiopian literary history page? Have women ever written poetry, short stories, articles, long novels, or even a little on the radio and television? It makes us ask. According to Abaynesh Birru in her article “Women’s Issues in the Media”, compiled reports, especially since the publication of books and newspapers, have been published in 1966 by Jonas Admasu, Habte Mariam Markos, Yohannes Admasu and Hailu Fulas. A.D. He has written extensively on the history of Ethiopian literature. They did not forget that Debtera Zeneb was a man of the Tewodros era. But,
“You could not pull one leg of pepper,
Let the fire burn you up.
A thousand horses in front of him,
a thousand horses in front of him
A thousand iron in the back,
a thousand iron in front of him
Her mother died without seeing this.
When he heard this, he sighed If they ask you who it is, say it is Mentewab. ” The poem Mentewab Chakol (1857) is not mentioned in the history of Ethiopian literature, except for the fact that it is a play. We learn from ancient literature that the history of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and the Orient is reminiscent of such beautiful charcoal. However, before the writing of women in most African countries, we see that Ethiopian women have been living in the world since 1941. In his third book, The Oxford Company to Theater, without mentioning the two university literature textbooks, he wrote: ፡ Searching Although these books may not be suitable for university teaching, it is not clear why they are not mentioned as such. In addition to the two writers, Mengistu Mekonnen published a book (1950s) advising couples not to commit adultery under the title “Albergo’s Philosopher”. He also wrote short novels, poems, and long stories Of course, there are also women who have been translated. Tsehai Melaku, author of “Engusna” and “Kassa”, is one of the poets and translators of Weinshet Masresha, Azeb Girma Wolde, author of children’s books such as Mary Jafarce, and the author of the poem Enalem Tsehai Friend. Today, many read and write short stories and poems in newspapers, magazines, and books. Jemaneh has a bachelor’s degree in Ethiopian literature and is currently pursuing a master’s degree in the field. So I hope that anyone who wants to do research on female writers will get an idea by looking at these works. Involvement in newspapers It was not until 1874, when the Italians began publishing newspapers in our country, that they began publishing newspapers or that they became acquainted with newspaper printing, directly or indirectly. Published in French and Amharic in Harar since 1893, “Le Sumir da Ethiopia” has been published. Then there is the newspaper “Mind”, which has been published since 1895.
After 1920, newspapers such as “Light and Peace”, “Kesate Birhan” and “Local Star” were published. During the Italian occupation, the Patriots had a newspaper called “Our Flag” and the Italians had a “Roman Light” newspaper. Since 1933 Our “flag” newspaper has since been replaced by an Arabic and Amharic newspaper entitled “Our Flag”. Addis Zemen, Today’s Ethiopia, Voice of Ethiopia, Union, as well as Menen, Mirror, Ethiopian Observer, Addis Reporter, Revolutionary Ethiopia, February, and Sendek. Many women have been involved in writing and advertising in these newspapers and magazines. There are also magazines published by government agencies. Although many of these magazines are blinking, it is difficult to study, but the police, the action, the armed forces, the news tourism, and so on. But when we look at all the women who started participating in newspapers and magazines, we know that he is 70 years old. This is a short biography of W / ro Mekdes Work, published in our 1940 edition. According to the newspaper, she is the author of a book called “Professional Source”. I found information in the 1940’s, but it is hard to imagine that women’s issues would not be mentioned occasionally, even if they were not published regularly.
1945 In the student column, the Lady of Thousand, in 1946, Miss Caleb Asmara, in 1945, Roman Work Kassahun, in 1948, performed the poem “Beauty Night”. Sylvia Pankhurst, also known as Wolete Selassie or a similar Christian name, has been involved in the Ethiopian Herald since its inception. We do not think that this woman has neglected women’s issues because she has been fighting for the equality of women since she was born. In addition, Menen and Mirror magazines carried photographs and advertisements about women’s fashion, musical women, and our people. For example, in 1942. Women’s Mirror in Printed Menen, 1954. We find a women’s page on Menen. In the same 1954 edition, an article was published on the participation of female radio journalists. When we look at today’s Ethiopia, the Voice of Ethiopia, the Union, the Labor Party, Revolutionary Ethiopia, February and the flag, and the newspapers and magazines that have been published since 1983, we find many women. In the beginning, there were magazines called Paradise and Eve. Radio participation When Ethiopian women started participating in radio, Abaynesh Birru was born in 1984. According to her research, it is unknown. According to her estimates, however, since 1959. It’s too early. However, “Ethiopian Radio and Television’s weekly program, which airs from January to August 1957. According to Roster, on Monday mornings there were programs such as Widows, Family Life and Parenting, Counseling, Illness, Women and Careers. In addition, in 1954. We know that there were also female editors who published radio magazines. This women’s program has been around since 1957. It indicates that it has already begun. Roster also posted a photo of her reading, “Esther Moges, a student of Ethiopian Radio Training.” However, since the history of women’s participation in radio did not begin with news reading and programming, but with music and drama as well as in any radio and television history, patriotic theater is likely to be one of the leading historians in this regard. In fact, when it comes to the history of Ethiopian radio newspapers, the history of the station itself should be considered.
According to the March 1987 issue of the first year of issue 1, the language of advertising, radio broadcasting began in 1928. is it. When Italy invaded our country, it set up its own radio station. 1933 Even after our country gained independence, radio services were better organized. Efforts have been made to improve this organization in 1946, 1949, 1952, 1955 and beyond. 1928 It is known that the Empress gave a speech when our country was invaded by Italy. So why should women’s participation never start with the Empress? It is, of course, the king’s speech. In 1957, the then director general of Ethiopian Radio and Television reported that he had participated in the station’s broadcasting program, particularly the “Discussion is Good” program. Since then, we have learned that not only women but also female programmers, including Roman Work Kassahun and Eleni Fetene Journalism, Nesopia Yilma, Tabota Wolde Michael, Eleni Mukaraba, etc. Participation on Ethiopian Television Ethiopian Television October 23, 1957 According to the three-month weekly program, it was regularly held every Thursday from 2pm 15 to 2pm 45 hours for women and their careers. This ensures that women’s participation in Ethiopian television begins immediately. According to a study by Abaynesh Birru, “Ethiopian Television’s Women’s Memory Program begins in 1966. In the next few years, ”he said. Even so, news outlets such as Eleni Mukaraba have been working since 1966. We remember them before. At the time, women were seen participating in foreign commercials and films, so he encouraged our women to do the same. The beauty pageants, doctors, officials and soldiers of the time, were seen on television, attracting the attention of presenters such as Genet Berha, Mulu Tsehai Bogale, Many Brothers, Sahle Mariam Beyene. Especially since the 1970s. Later, the number of women in the program grew as a programmer, reporter, promoter, and filmmaker. Today, in addition to Amharic and English, Oromo, Tigrigna, Afar, Somali, etc. programs have been launched, and the number of applicants for these programs has increased to thousands. This makes it very difficult to find female reporters, editors and advertisers was encouraged by what he had been doing for twenty years. Public relations As mentioned in the introduction, public relations is the media sector. As a result, all women in the public sector produce articles for newspapers, radio, television, magazines, and brochures. They do film and photography. They create a conducive environment for press conferences or interviews. In addition to public relations, there are also foreign news agencies. Current evidence suggests that until recently (1983) the majority of women in various presses had completed high school, with a few graduating with a bachelor’s or master’s degree.
Since 1991 In recent years, however, many female journalists have become proficient in journalism and journalism at Addis Ababa University and other universities. Participation in various press releases is also encouraging. However, efforts should be made to study women’s participation in private and public newspapers, radio, television, advertising, film, amateur newspapers and writers, public relations departments, and to retain information that will satisfy future generations. In this regard, there is no question that studies for graduation or postgraduate studies are prepared in a way that is suitable for newspapers, magazines, and books. Despite the growth of the media since 1983. It is still flashing. The biggest problem now is not the lack of press law or censorship.
The law of the press will be amended, the freedom of the press for various reasons will not be hindered, people will be able to write, speak, and express themselves without embarrassment. Instead, it will play a key role in promoting women’s participation in the media. The fundamental reason for media freedom is that the press serves as the eyes and ears of the government and the people. Indeed, the press often exposes the shortcomings of the government, and some may feel that they are hurting the government and the people. But if there are mistakes that the government and the people do not realize, it will help them to correct the mistakes in a timely manner. Therefore, even if the press strongly criticizes and condemns the people and the government, accepting criticism and condemnation if it is right will lead to progress, not failure. Still, to what extent has the press exploited reality and developed a culture of democracy? In fact, the biggest problem today is the inability of some private media outlets to distinguish between news and novels. If a novel is published in the news, a free press cannot be used for the flourishing of democracy. The problem with the press and some opposition parties is that they have to be able to measure the role of these groups in Ethiopian politics in one way or another. If the press is to be heard, the only option is to move in the community.
Otherwise, the application will not be able to play an important role in the Ethiopian political arena. Democracy cannot exist as long as the Ethiopian people do not respect it and the final petitioners are foreign celebrities or human rights organizations. Probably a special colonial desire. Unaware of this, some private presses have been able to play a constructive role in the past few years. This does not mean that there is no hope for the future. When a generation comes to realize that it is the press’s responsibility to act in a constructive manner according to the law, it will no longer be monopolized by individuals who want to use it for creative, anti-peace and anti-development purposes. Women’s participation will also increase.